#### Summary

Two things determine profits: income, or turnover (the price at which we sell something) and costs (how much we spent making what we sell). Therefore, knowing how much our costs are going to be is essential when planning the viability of a business.#### Production duality:

#### Cost analysis:

- Period analysis
- Types of costs
- Average and marginal costs
**Short run cost analysis**

In the *short run*, *fixed costs* include capital, K, whereas labour, L, is considered *variable*. Fixed costs are represented as a horizontal line and do not vary whatever level of production we achieve.

The two graphs show how the two phases pan out. In the first phase (I), variable costs (and therefore total costs, seeing as fixed costs are a constant) grow slower than growth at first, before reaching a point of inflection (II) and beginning to grow much faster than the output they are capable of generating.

This is related with *returns to scale*. In phase I, where the *elasticity* of scale is greater than 1, there are increasing returns to scale, while phase III corresponds to decreasing returns to scale. In point II, the elasticity of scale equals 1, which represents constant returns to scale.

If we translate this into average and marginal costs, an optimal level is reached along the stretch between which marginal costs are equal to average variable and fixed costs respectively. This coincides with the stretch just before costs begin to grow exponentially.