The analysis of welfare economics is built around the concept of Pareto efficiency. However, this efficiency criterion does not always represent a satisfactory answer. Other times, certain optimality conditions cannot be satisfied, and therefore Pareto efficiency simply cannot be reached. In order to solve this problem, and to find a new way to establish which allocation is best, economists have been since searching for new criteria to make a more informed decision. In this Learning Path we’ll learn about some of these criteria, in order to understand them and...
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Welfare economics analyses different states in which markets or the economy can be. Its main objective is to find an indicator or measure in order to guarantee that markets are behaving optimally, thus also guaranteeing that consumer welfare is as high as possible. Even though welfare was already analysed by economists such as Adam Smith or Jeremy Bentham, it was economists from the Classical School who thoroughly analysed the subject: Alfred Marshall saw a relationship between welfare and wealth, while other economists such as Vilfredo Pareto and Arthur C....
The analysis of monopolies, oligopolies and perfect competition shows us that neither is real. Monopolies and oligopolies (when collusion exists) are illegal and considered as really harmful for the economy and consumer’s welfare. On the...
In the previous Learning Path on oligopolies we learned what they are and what kinds of oligopolies exist. In this LP, we’ll learn about how oligopolists can collude in order to maximise their profits, even...
The bigger a firm is, the more efficient. Therefore, bigger and fewer firms in the market should mean lower prices and more goods produced. However, as we can see everyday, this is not really the...
In the first Learning Path on monopolies, we learned about what they are, how they affect social welfare and we learned about a few types. In this second LP on monopolies, we’ll learn about a...
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